Plant Physiology (2008), 148, 1, 504--518 DOI: 10.1104/pp.108.119222
To better understand the metabolic processes of seed filling in soybean (Glycine max), two complementary proteomic approaches, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DGE) and semicontinuous multidimensional protein identification technology (Sec-MudPIT) coupled with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, were employed to analyze whole seed proteins at five developmental stages. 2-DGE and Sec-MudPIT analyses collectively identified 478 nonredundant proteins with only 70 proteins common to both datasets. 2-DGE data revealed that 38% of identified proteins were represented by multiple 2-DGE species. Identified proteins belonged to 13 (2-DGE) and 15 (Sec-MudPIT) functional classes. Proteins involved in metabolism, protein destination and storage, and energy were highly represented, collectively accounting for 61.1% (2-DGE) and 42.2% (Sec-MudPIT) of total identified proteins. Membrane proteins, based upon transmembrane predictions, were 3-fold more prominent in Sec-MudPIT than 2-DGE. Data were integrated into an existing soybean proteome database (www.oilseedproteomics.missouri.edu). The integrated quantitative soybean database was compared to a parallel study of rapeseed (Brassica napus) to further understand the regulation of intermediary metabolism in protein-rich versus oil-rich seeds. Comparative analyses revealed (1) up to 3-fold higher expression of fatty acid biosynthetic proteins during seed filling in rapeseed compared to soybean; and (2) approximately a 48% higher number of protein species and a net 80% higher protein abundance for carbon assimilatory and glycolytic pathways leading to fatty acid synthesis in rapeseed versus soybean. Increased expression of glycolytic and fatty acid biosynthetic proteins in rapeseed compared to soybean suggests that a possible mechanistic basis for higher oil in rapeseed involves the concerted commitment of hexoses to glycolysis and eventual de novo fatty acid synthesis pathways.